MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: The respiratory system regulates oxygen and carbon dioxide levels within the blood. Respiration includes ventilation, gas exchange between the air, blood, and tissues within the body, and the use of oxygen for metabolism. Inhalation allows oxygen to enter the body, pulling air into the nose and mouth, lungs, and into the air sacs called alveoli, where gas exchange takes place. Alveoli move freely when air is inhaled and exhaled. Capillaries are small blood vessels that line the walls of the alveoli. During gas exchange, oxygen enters and carbon dioxide exits the bloodstream via the alveolar-capillary membrane. Once oxygen molecules move from the alveoli into the capillaries, they dissolve into the plasma and enter the red blood cell or erythrocyte. Erythrocytes contain millions of soluble proteins called hemoglobin. Hemoglobin contains four subunits each capable of binding one molecule of oxygen. Once one molecule of oxygen binds to one of the subunits, the other sites bind oxygen more readily. Dissolved and bound oxygen flows through the arterial bloodstream to capillaries within tissues. Upon arrival, carbon dioxide loading of the erythrocyte promotes oxygen unloading. Oxygen metabolism within cells produces carbon dioxide gas as a metabolic waste. Carbon dioxide exits the cells and tissues and is converted into bicarbonate within the erythrocytes. Converting carbon dioxide to bicarbonate releases hydrogen ions that decrease oxygen affinity for hemoglobin, freeing the oxygen to be delivered to tissue cells. After delivering oxygen to the tissues, the carbon dioxide-rich blood returns to the lungs through the venous circulation and then to the pulmonary artery. Inside each erythrocyte, the bicarbonate conversion is reversed, recreating carbon dioxide, which diffuses across the erythrocyte into the alveoli and lungs and is excreted out of the body. ♪ [music] ♪
"I wanted to thank you for the terrific job you did illustrating my client's
injuries. The case was settled at the pre-suit mediation, and I believe a
good part of the success we had was due to the medical legal art you
Your work received the ultimate compliment at the conclusion of the mediation. The hospital risk manager took the exhibit with them at the
conclusion of mediation, and will be using it to train nurses on how to
prevent bed sores..."
Steven G. Koeppel Troy, Yeslow & Koeppel, P.A. Fort Myers, FL
"It is my experience that it's much more effective to show a jury what
happened than simply to tell a jury what happened. In this day and age where
people are used to getting information visually, through television and
other visual media, I would be at a disadvantage using only words.
I teach a Litigation Process class at the University of Baltimore Law Schooland use [Medical Legal Art's] animation in my class. Students always saythat they never really understood what happened to [to my client] until theysaw the animation.
Animations are powerful communication tools that should be used wheneverpossible to persuade juries."
Andrew G. Slutkin Snyder Slutkin & Kopec Baltimore, MD
"Medical Legal Art wins our firm's highest accolades for professionalism and
exhibit quality. In fact, many of the doctors I work with request color
copies of your outstanding artwork to show to patients during the informed
Jeanne Dolan, BSRN, AlNC Legal Nurse Consultant Golden Valley, MN
"We got a defense verdict yesterday! Your exhibit was extremely helpful in
showing the jury how unlikely it is to damage all four of the nerve branches
which control the sense of taste."
Karen M. Talbot
Silverman Bernheim & Vogel, P.C.
Medical Legal Art creates medical demonstrative evidence (medical
illustrations, drawings, pictures, graphics, charts, medical animations,
anatomical models, and interactive presentations) for use during legal
proceedings, including research, demand letters, client conferences,
depositions, arbitrations, mediations, settlement conferences, mock jury
trials and for use in the courtroom. We do not provide legal or medical
advice. If you have legal questions, you should find a lawyer with whom you
can discuss your case issues. If you have medical questions, you should seek the advice of a healthcare provider.